So strong is the belief in life, in what is most fragile in life – real life, I mean – that in the end this belief is lost. Man, that
inveterate dreamer, daily more discontent with his destiny, has trouble assessing the objects he has been led to use,
objects that his nonchalance has brought his way, or that he has earned through his own efforts, almost always through
his own efforts, for he has agreed to work, at least he has not refused to try his luck (or what he calls his luck!). At this
point he feels extremely modest: he knows what women he has had, what silly affairs he has been involved in; he is
unimpressed by his wealth or his poverty, in this respect he is still a newborn babe and, as for the approval of his
conscience, I confess that he does very nicely without it. If he still retains a certain lucidity, all he can do is turn back
toward his childhood which, however his guides and mentors may have botched it, still strikes him as somehow
charming. There, the absence of any known restrictions allows him the perspective of several lives lived at once; this
illusion becomes firmly rooted within him; now he is only interested in the fleeting, the extreme facility of everything.
Children set off each day without a worry in the world. Everything is near at hand, the worst material conditions are fine.
The woods are white or black, one will never sleep.

But it is true that we would not dare venture so far, it is not merely a question of distance. Threat is piled upon threat,
one yields, abandons a portion of the terrain to be conquered. This imagination which knows no bounds is henceforth
allowed to be exercised only in strict accordance with the laws of an arbitrary utility; it is incapable of assuming this
inferior role for very long and, in the vicinity of the twentieth year, generally prefers to abandon man to his lusterless fate.

Though he may later try to pull himself together on occasion, having felt that he is losing by slow degrees all reason for
living, incapable as he has become of being able to rise to some exceptional situation such as love, he will hardly
succeed. This is because he henceforth belongs body and soul to an imperative practical necessity which demands his
constant attention. None of his gestures will be expansive, none of his ideas generous or far-reaching. In his mind’s eye,
events real or imagined will be seen only as they relate to a welter of similar events, events in which he has not
participated, abortive events. What am I saying: he will judge them in relationship to one of these events whose
consequences are more reassuring than the others. On no account will he view them as his salvation.

Beloved imagination, what I most like in you is your unsparing quality.

There remains madness, "the madness that one locks up," as it has aptly been described. That madness or another….
We all know, in fact, that the insane owe their incarceration to a tiny number of legally reprehensible acts and that, were
it not for these acts their freedom (or what we see as their freedom) would not be threatened. I am willing to admit that
they are, to some degree, victims of their imagination, in that it induces them not to pay attention to certain rules –
outside of which the species feels threatened – which we are all supposed to know and respect. But their profound
indifference to the way in which we judge them, and even to the various punishments meted out to them, allows us to
suppose that they derive a great deal of comfort and consolation from their imagination, that they enjoy their madness
sufficiently to endure the thought that its validity does not extend beyond themselves. And, indeed, hallucinations,
illusions, etc., are not a source of trifling pleasure. The best controlled sensuality partakes of it, and I know that there
are many evenings when I would gladly that pretty hand which, during the last pages of Taine’s L’Intelligence, indulges
in some curious misdeeds. I could spend my whole life prying loose the secrets of the insane. These people are honest
to a fault, and their naiveté has no peer but my own. Christopher Columbus should have set out to discover America
with a boatload of madmen. And note how this madness has taken shape, and endured.



It is not the fear of madness which will oblige us to leave the flag of imagination furled.

The case against the realistic attitude demands to be examined, following the case against the materialistic attitude. The
latter, more poetic in fact than the former, admittedly implies on the part of man a kind of monstrous pride which,
admittedly, is monstrous, but not a new and more complete decay. It should above all be viewed as a welcome reaction
against certain ridiculous tendencies of spiritualism. Finally, it is not incompatible with a certain nobility of thought.

By contrast, the realistic attitude, inspired by positivism, from Saint Thomas Aquinas to Anatole France, clearly seems to
me to be hostile to any intellectual or moral advancement. I loathe it, for it is made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull
conceit. It is this attitude which today gives birth to these ridiculous books, these insulting plays. It constantly feeds on
and derives strength from the newspapers and stultifies both science and art by assiduously flattering the lowest of
tastes; clarity bordering on stupidity, a dog’s life. The activity of the best minds feels the effects of it; the law of the
lowest common denominator finally prevails upon them as it does upon the others. An amusing result of this state of
affairs, in literature for example, is the generous supply of novels. Each person adds his personal little "observation" to
the whole. As a cleansing antidote to all this, M. Paul Valéry recently suggested that an anthology be compiled in which
the largest possible number of opening passages from novels be offered; the resulting insanity, he predicted, would be
a source of considerable edification. The most famous authors would be included. Such a though reflects great credit on
Paul Valéry who, some time ago, speaking of novels, assured me that, so far as he was concerned, he would continue
to refrain from writing: "The Marquise went out at five." But has he kept his word?

If the purely informative style, of which the sentence just quoted is a prime example, is virtually the rule rather than the
exception in the novel form, it is because, in all fairness, the author’s ambition is severely circumscribed. The
circumstantial, needlessly specific nature of each of their notations leads me to believe that they are perpetrating a joke
at my expense. I am spared not even one of the character’s slightest vacillations: will he be fairhaired? what will his
name be? will we first meet him during the summer? So many questions resolved once and for all, as chance directs; the
only discretionary power left me is to close the book, which I am careful to do somewhere in the vicinity of the first page.
And the descriptions! There is nothing to which their vacuity can be compared; they are nothing but so many
superimposed images taken from some stock catalogue, which the author utilizes more and more whenever he chooses;
he seizes the opportunity to slip me his postcards, he tries to make me agree with him about the clichés:

The small room into which the young man was shown was covered with yellow wallpaper: there were geraniums in the
windows, which were covered with muslin curtains; the setting sun cast a harsh light over the entire setting…. There was
nothing special about the room. The furniture, of yellow wood, was all very old. A sofa with a tall back turned down, an
oval table opposite the sofa, a dressing table and a mirror set against the pierglass, some chairs along the walls, two or
three etchings of no value portraying some German girls with birds in their hands – such were the furnishings.
(Dostoevski, Crime and Punishment)



I am in no mood to admit that the mind is interested in occupying itself with such matters, even fleetingly. It may be
argued that this school-boy description has its place, and that at this juncture of the book the author has his reasons for
burdening me. Nevertheless he is wasting his time, for I refuse to go into his room. Others’ laziness or fatigue does not
interest me. I have too unstable a notion of the continuity of life to equate or compare my moments of depression or
weakness with my best moments. When one ceases to feel, I am of the opinion one should keep quiet. And I would like it
understood that I am not accusing or condemning lack of originality as such. I am only saying that I do not take particular
note of the empty moments of my life, that it may be unworthy for any man to crystallize those which seem to him to be
so. I shall, with your permission, ignore the description of that room, and many more like it.

Not so fast, there; I’m getting into the area of psychology, a subject about which I shall be careful not to joke.

The author attacks a character and, this being settled upon, parades his hero to and fro across the world. No matter
what happens, this hero, whose actions and reactions are admirably predictable, is compelled not to thwart or upset --
even though he looks as though he is -- the calculations of which he is the object. The currents of life can appear to lift
him up, roll him over, cast him down, he will still belong to this readymade human type. A simple game of chess which
doesn't interest me in the least -- man, whoever he may be, being for me a mediocre opponent. What I cannot bear are
those wretched discussions relative to such and such a move, since winning or losing is not in question. And if the game
is not worth the candle, if objective reason does a frightful job -- as indeed it does -- of serving him who calls upon it, is it
not fitting and proper to avoid all contact with these categories? "Diversity is so vast that every different tone of voice,
every step, cough, every wipe of the nose, every sneeze...."* (Pascal.) If in a cluster of grapes there are no two alike,
why do you want me to describe this grape by the other, by all the others, why do you want me to make a palatable
grape? Our brains are dulled by the incurable mania of wanting to make the unknown known, classifiable. The desire for
analysis wins out over the sentiments.** (Barrès, Proust.) The result is statements of undue length whose persuasive
power is attributable solely to their strangeness and which impress the reader only by the abstract quality of their
vocabulary, which moreover is ill-defined. If the general ideas that philosophy has thus far come up with as topics of
discussion revealed by their very nature their definitive incursion into a broader or more general area. I would be the
first to greet the news with joy. But up till now it has been nothing but idle repartee; the flashes of wit and other niceties
vie in concealing from us the true thought in search of itself, instead of concentrating on obtaining successes. It seems
to me that every act is its own justification, at least for the person who has been capable of committing it, that it is
endowed with a radiant power which the slightest gloss is certain to diminish. Because of this gloss, it even in a sense
ceases to happen. It gains nothing to be thus distinguished. Stendhal's heroes are subject to the comments and
appraisals -- appraisals which are more or less successful -- made by that author, which add not one whit to their glory.
Where we really find them again is at the point at which Stendahl has lost them.



We are still living under the reign of logic: this, of course, is what I have been driving at. But in this day and age logical
methods are applicable only to solving problems of secondary interest. The absolute rationalism that is still in vogue
allows us to consider only facts relating directly to our experience. Logical ends, on the contrary, escape us. It is
pointless to add that experience itself has found itself increasingly circumscribed. It paces back and forth in a cage from
which it is more and more difficult to make it emerge. It too leans for support on what is most immediately expedient, and
it is protected by the sentinels of common sense. Under the pretense of civilization and progress, we have managed to
banish from the mind everything that may rightly or wrongly be termed superstition, or fancy; forbidden is any kind of
search for truth which is not in conformance with accepted practices. It was, apparently, by pure chance that a part of
our mental world which we pretended not to be concerned with any longer -- and, in my opinion by far the most
important part -- has been brought back to light. For this we must give thanks to the discoveries of Sigmund Freud. On
the basis of these discoveries a current of opinion is finally forming by means of which the human explorer will be able to
carry his investigation much further, authorized as he will henceforth be not to confine himself solely to the most
summary realities. The imagination is perhaps on the point of reasserting itself, of reclaiming its rights. If the depths of
our mind contain within it strange forces capable of augmenting those on the surface, or of waging a victorious battle
against them, there is every reason to seize them -- first to seize them, then, if need be, to submit them to the control of
our reason. The analysts themselves have everything to gain by it. But it is worth noting that no means has been
designated a priori for carrying out this undertaking, that until further notice it can be construed to be the province of
poets as well as scholars, and that its success is not dependent upon the more or less capricious paths that will be
followed.



Freud very rightly brought his critical faculties to bear upon the dream. It is, in fact, inadmissible that this considerable
portion of psychic activity (since, at least from man's birth until his death, thought offers no solution of continuity, the
sum of the moments of the dream, from the point of view of time, and taking into consideration only the time of pure
dreaming, that is the dreams of sleep, is not inferior to the sum of the moments of reality, or, to be more precisely
limiting, the moments of waking) has still today been so grossly neglected. I have always been amazed at the way an
ordinary observer lends so much more credence and attaches so much more importance to waking events than to those
occurring in dreams. It is because man, when he ceases to sleep, is above all the plaything of his memory, and in its
normal state memory takes pleasure in weakly retracing for him the circumstances of the dream, in stripping it of any
real importance, and in dismissing the only determinant from the point where he thinks he has left it a few hours before:
this firm hope, this concern. He is under the impression of continuing something that is worthwhile. Thus the dream finds
itself reduced to a mere parenthesis, as is the night. And, like the night, dreams generally contribute little to furthering
our understanding. This curious state of affairs seems to me to call for certain reflections:

1) Within the limits where they operate (or are thought to operate) dreams give every evidence of being continuous and
show signs of organization. Memory alone arrogates to itself the right to excerpt from dreams, to ignore the transitions,
and to depict for us rather a series of dreams than the dream itself. By the same token, at any given moment we have
only a distinct notion of realities, the coordination of which is a question of will.* (Account must be taken of the depth of
the dream. For the most part I retain only what I can glean from its most superficial layers. What I most enjoy
contemplating about a dream is everything that sinks back below the surface in a waking state, everything I have
forgotten about my activities in the course of the preceding day, dark foliage, stupid branches. In "reality," likewise, I
prefer to fall.) What is worth noting is that nothing allows us to presuppose a greater dissipation of the elements of which
the dream is constituted. I am sorry to have to speak about it according to a formula which in principle excludes the
dream. When will we have sleeping logicians, sleeping philosophers? I would like to sleep, in order to surrender myself
to the dreamers, the way I surrender myself to those who read me with eyes wide open; in order to stop imposing, in this
realm, the conscious rhythm of my thought. Perhaps my dream last night follows that of the night before, and will be
continued the next night, with an exemplary strictness. It's quite possible, as the saying goes. And since it has not been
proved in the slightest that, in doing so, the "reality" with which I am kept busy continues to exist in the state of dream,
that it does not sink back down into the immemorial, why should I not grant to dreams what I occasionally refuse reality,
that is, this value of certainty in itself which, in its own time, is not open to my repudiation? Why should I not expect from
the sign of the dream more than I expect from a degree of consciousness which is daily more acute? Can't the dream
also be used in solving the fundamental questions of life? Are these questions the same in one case as in the other
and, in the dream, do these questions already exist? Is the dream any less restrictive or punitive than the rest? I am
growing old and, more than that reality to which I believe I subject myself, it is perhaps the dream, the difference with
which I treat the dream, which makes me grow old.

2) Let me come back again to the waking state. I have no choice but to consider it a phenomenon of interference. Not
only does the mind display, in this state, a strange tendency to lose its bearings (as evidenced by the slips and mistakes
the secrets of which are just beginning to be revealed to us), but, what is more, it does not appear that, when the mind is
functioning normally, it really responds to anything but the suggestions which come to it from the depths of that dark
night to which I commend it. However conditioned it may be, its balance is relative. It scarcely dares express itself and, if
it does, it confines itself to verifying that such and such an idea, or such and such a woman, has made an impression on
it. What impression it would be hard pressed to say, by which it reveals the degree of its subjectivity, and nothing more.
This idea, this woman, disturb it, they tend to make it less severe. What they do is isolate the mind for a second from its
solvent and spirit it to heaven, as the beautiful precipitate it can be, that it is. When all else fails, it then calls upon
chance, a divinity even more obscure than the others to whom it ascribes all its aberrations. Who can say to me that the
angle by which that idea which affects it is offered, that what it likes in the eye of that woman is not precisely what links it
to its dream, binds it to those fundamental facts which, through its own fault, it has lost? And if things were different,
what might it be capable of? I would like to provide it with the key to this corridor.

3) The mind of the man who dreams is fully satisfied by what happens to him. The agonizing question of possibility is no
longer pertinent. Kill, fly faster, love to your heart's content. And if you should die, are you not certain of reawaking
among the dead? Let yourself be carried along, events will not tolerate your interference. You are nameless. The ease
of everything is priceless.

What reason, I ask, a reason so much vaster than the other, makes dreams seem so natural and allows me to welcome
unreservedly a welter of episodes so strange that they could confound me now as I write? And yet I can believe my
eyes, my ears; this great day has arrived, this beast has spoken.

If man's awaking is harder, if it breaks the spell too abruptly, it is because he has been led to make for himself too
impoverished a notion of atonement.

4) From the moment when it is subjected to a methodical examination, when, by means yet to be determined, we
succeed in recording the contents of dreams in their entirety (and that presupposes a discipline of memory spanning
generations; but let us nonetheless begin by noting the most salient facts), when its graph will expand with unparalleled
volume and regularity, we may hope that the mysteries which really are not will give way to the great Mystery. I believe in
the future resolution of these two states, dream and reality, which are seemingly so contradictory, into a kind of absolute
reality, a surreality, if one may so speak. It is in quest of this surreality that I am going, certain not to find it but too
unmindful of my death not to calculate to some slight degree the joys of its possession.

A story is told according to which Saint-Pol-Roux, in times gone by, used to have a notice posted on the door of his
manor house in Camaret, every evening before he went to sleep, which read: THE POET IS WORKING.

A great deal more could be said, but in passing I merely wanted to touch upon a subject which in itself would require a
very long and much more detailed discussion; I shall come back to it. At this juncture, my intention was merely to mark a
point by noting the hate of the marvelous which rages in certain men, this absurdity beneath which they try to bury it. Let
us not mince words: the marvelous is always beautiful, anything marvelous is beautiful, in fact only the marvelous is
beautiful.





In the realm of literature, only the marvelous is capable of fecundating works which belong to an inferior category such
as the novel, and generally speaking, anything that involves storytelling. Lewis' The Monk is an admirable proof of this. It
is infused throughout with the presence of the marvelous. Long before the author has freed his main characters from all
temporal constraints, one feels them ready to act with an unprecedented pride. This passion for eternity with which they
are constantly stirred lends an unforgettable intensity to their torments, and to mine. I mean that this book, from
beginning to end, and in the purest way imaginable, exercises an exalting effect only upon that part of the mind which
aspires to leave the earth and that, stripped of an insignificant part of its plot, which belongs to the period in which it was
written, it constitutes a paragon of precision and innocent grandeur.* (What is admirable about the fantastic is that there
is no longer anything fantastic: there is only the real.) It seems to me none better has been done, and that the character
of Mathilda in particular is the most moving creation that one can credit to this figurative fashion in literature. She is less
a character than a continual temptation. And if a character is not a temptation, what is he? An extreme temptation, she.
In The Monk the "nothing is impossible for him who dares try" gives it its full, convincing measure. Ghosts play a logical
role in the book, since the critical mind does not seize them in order to dispute them. Ambrosio's punishment is likewise
treated in a legitimate manner, since it is finally accepted by the critical faculty as a natural denouement.

It may seem arbitrary on my part, when discussing the marvelous, to choose this model, from which both the Nordic
literatures and Oriental literatures have borrowed time and time again, not to mention the religious literatures of every
country. This is because most of the examples which these literatures could have furnished me with are tainted by
puerility, for the simple reason that they are addressed to children. At an early age children are weaned on the
marvelous, and later on they fail to retain a sufficient virginity of mind to thoroughly enjoy fairy tales. No matter how
charming they may be, a grown man would think he were reverting to childhood by nourishing himself on fairy tales, and
I am the first to admit that all such tales are not suitable for him. The fabric of adorable improbabilities must be made a
trifle more subtle the older we grow, and we are still at the age of waiting for this kind of spider.... But the faculties do not
change radically. Fear, the attraction of the unusual, chance, the taste for things extravagant are all devices which we
can always call upon without fear of deception. There are fairy tales to be written for adults, fairy tales still almost blue.

The marvelous is not the same in every period of history: it partakes in some obscure way of a sort of general revelation
only the fragments of which come down to us: they are the romantic ruins, the modern mannequin, or any other symbol
capable of affecting the human sensibility for a period of time. In these areas which make us smile, there is still
portrayed the incurable human restlessness, and this is why I take them into consideration and why I judge them
inseparable from certain productions of genius which are, more than the others, painfully afflicted by them. They are
Villon's gibbets, Racine's Greeks, Baudelaire's couches. They coincide with an eclipse of the taste I am made to endure,
I whose notion of taste is the image of a big spot. Amid the bad taste of my time I strive to go further than anyone else. It
would have been I, had I lived in 1820, I "the bleeding nun," I who would not have spared this cunning and banal "let us
conceal" whereof the parodical Cuisin speaks, it would have been I, I who would have reveled in the enormous
metaphors, as he says, all phases of the "silver disk." For today I think of a castle, half of which is not necessarily in
ruins; this castle belongs to me, I picture it in a rustic setting, not far from Paris. The outbuildings are too numerous to
mention, and, as for the interior, it has been frightfully restored, in such manner as to leave nothing to be desired from
the viewpoint of comfort. Automobiles are parked before the door, concealed by the shade of trees. A few of my friends
are living here as permanent guests: there is Louis Aragon leaving; he only has time enough to say hello; Philippe
Soupault gets up with the stars, and Paul Eluard, our great Eluard, has not yet come home. There are Robert Desnos
and Roger Vitrac out on the grounds poring over an ancient edict on duelling; Georges Auric, Jean Paulhan; Max
Morise, who rows so well, and Benjamin Péret, busy with his equations with birds; and Joseph Delteil; and Jean Carrive;
and Georges Limbour, and Georges Limbours (there is a whole hedge of Georges Limbours); and Marcel Noll; there is
T. Fraenkel waving to us from his captive balloon, Georges Malkine, Antonin Artaud, Francis Gérard, Pierre Naville, J.-A.
Boiffard, and after them Jacques Baron and his brother, handsome and cordial, and so many others besides, and
gorgeous women, I might add. Nothing is too good for these young men, their wishes are, as to wealth, so many
commands. Francis Picabia comes to pay us a call, and last week, in the hall of mirrors, we received a certain Marcel
Duchamp whom we had not hitherto known. Picasso goes hunting in the neighborhood. The spirit of demoralization has
elected domicile in the castle, and it is with it we have to deal every time it is a question of contact with our fellowmen,
but the doors are always open, and one does not begin by "thanking" everyone, you know. Moreover, the solitude is
vast, we don't often run into one another. And anyway, isn't what matters that we be the masters of ourselves, the
masters of women, and of love too?

I shall be proved guilty of poetic dishonesty: everyone will go parading about saying that I live on the rue Fontaine and
that he will have none of the water that flows therefrom. To be sure! But is he certain that this castle into which I cordially
invite him is an image? What if this castle really existed! My guests are there to prove it does; their whim is the luminous
road that leads to it. We really live by our fantasies when we give free reign to them. And how could what one might do
bother the other, there, safely sheltered from the sentimental pursuit and at the trysting place of opportunities?





Man proposes and disposes. He and he alone can determine whether he is completely master of himself, that is,
whether he maintains the body of his desires, daily more formidable, in a state of anarchy. Poetry teaches him to. It
bears within itself the perfect compensation for the miseries we endure. It can also be an organizer, if ever, as the result
of a less intimate disappointment, we contemplate taking it seriously. The time is coming when it decrees the end of
money and by itself will break the bread of heaven for the earth! There will still be gatherings on the public squares, and
movements you never dared hope participate in. Farewell to absurd choices, the dreams of dark abyss, rivalries, the
prolonged patience, the flight of the seasons, the artificial order of ideas, the ramp of danger, time for everything! May
you only take the trouble to practice poetry. Is it not incumbent upon us, who are already living off it, to try and impose
what we hold to be our case for further inquiry?

It matters not whether there is a certain disproportion between this defense and the illustration that will follow it. It was a
question of going back to the sources of poetic imagination and, what is more, of remaining there. Not that I pretend to
have done so. It requires a great deal of fortitude to try to set up one's abode in these distant regions where everything
seems at first to be so awkward and difficult, all the more so if one wants to try to take someone there. Besides, one is
never sure of really being there. If one is going to all that trouble, one might as well stop off somewhere else. Be that as
it may, the fact is that the way to these regions is clearly marked, and that to attain the true goal is now merely a matter
of the travelers' ability to endure.





We are all more or less aware of the road traveled. I was careful to relate, in the course of a study of the case of Robert
Desnos entitled ENTRÉE DES MÉDIUMS,* (See Les Pas perdus, published by N.R.F.) that I had been led to"
concentrate my attention on the more or less partial sentences which, when one is quite alone and on the verge of
falling asleep, become perceptible for the mind without its being possible to discover what provoked them." I had then
just attempted the poetic adventure with the minimum of risks, that is, my aspirations were the same as they are today
but I trusted in the slowness of formulation to keep me from useless contacts, contacts of which I completely
disapproved. This attitude involved a modesty of thought certain vestiges of which I still retain. At the end of my life, I
shall doubtless manage to speak with great effort the way people speak, to apologize for my voice and my few remaining
gestures. The virtue of the spoken word (and the written word all the more so) seemed to me to derive from the faculty
of foreshortening in a striking manner the exposition (since there was exposition) of a small number of facts, poetic or
other, of which I made myself the substance. I had come to the conclusion that Rimbaud had not proceeded any
differently. I was composing, with a concern for variety that deserved better, the final poems of Mont de piété, that is, I
managed to extract from the blank lines of this book an incredible advantage. These lines were the closed eye to the
operations of thought that I believed I was obliged to keep hidden from the reader. It was not deceit on my part, but my
love of shocking the reader. I had the illusion of a possible complicity, which I had more and more difficulty giving up. I
had begun to cherish words excessively for the space they allow around them, for their tangencies with countless other
words which I did not utter. The poem BLACK FOREST derives precisely from this state of mind. It took me six months to
write it, and you may take my word for it that I did not rest a single day. But this stemmed from the opinion I had of myself
in those days, which was high, please don't judge me too harshly. I enjoy these stupid confessions. At that point cubist
pseudo-poetry was trying to get a foothold, but it had emerged defenseless from Picasso's brain, and I was thought to
be as dull as dishwater (and still am). I had a sneaking suspicion, moreover, that from the viewpoint of poetry I was off
on the wrong road, but I hedged my bet as best I could, defying lyricism with salvos of definitions and formulas (the Dada
phenomena were waiting in the wings, ready to come on stage) and pretending to search for an application of poetry to
advertising (I went so far as to claim that the world would end, not with a good book but with a beautiful advertisement
for heaven or for hell).

In those days, a man at least as boring as I, Pierre Reverdy, was writing:

The image is a pure creation of the mind.

It cannot be born from a comparison but from a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities.

The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be -- the
greater its emotional power and poetic reality...* (Nord-Sud, March 1918)

These words, however sibylline for the uninitiated, were extremely revealing, and I pondered them for a long time. But
the image eluded me. Reverdy's aesthetic, a completely a posteriori aesthetic, led me to mistake the effects for the
causes. It was in the midst of all this that I renounced irrevocably my point of view.





One evening, therefore, before I fell asleep, I perceived, so clearly articulated that it was impossible to change a word,
but nonetheless removed from the sound of any voice, a rather strange phrase which came to me without any apparent
relationship to the events in which, my consciousness agrees, I was then involved, a phrase which seemed to me
insistent, a phrase, if I may be so bold, which was knocking at the window. I took cursory note of it and prepared to move
on when its organic character caught my attention. Actually, this phrase astonished me: unfortunately I cannot
remember it exactly, but it was something like: "There is a man cut in two by the window," but there could be no question
of ambiguity, accompanied as it was by the faint visual image* (Were I a painter, this visual depiction would doubtless
have become more important for me than the other. It was most certainly my previous predispositions which decided the
matter. Since that day, I have had occasion to concentrate my attention voluntarily on similar apparitions, and I know
they are fully as clear as auditory phenomena. With a pencil and white sheet of paper to hand, I could easily trace their
outlines. Here again it is not a matter of drawing, but simply of tracing. I could thus depict a tree, a wave, a musical
instrument, all manner of things of which I am presently incapable of providing even the roughest sketch. I would plunge
into it, convinced that I would find my way again, in a maze of lines which at first glance would seem to be going
nowhere. And, upon opening my eyes, I would get the very strong impression of something "never seen." The proof of
what I am saying has been provided many times by Robert Desnos: to be convinced, one has only to leaf through the
pages of issue number 36 of Feuilles libres which contains several of his drawings (Romeo and Juliet, A Man Died This
Morning, etc.) which were taken by this magazine as the drawings of a madman and published as such.) of a man
walking cut half way up by a window perpendicular to the axis of his body. Beyond the slightest shadow of a doubt, what I
saw was the simple reconstruction in space of a man leaning out a window. But this window having shifted with the man, I
realized that I was dealing with an image of a fairly rare sort, and all I could think of was to incorporate it into my material
for poetic construction. No sooner had I granted it this capacity than it was in fact succeeded by a whole series of
phrases, with only brief pauses between them, which surprised me only slightly less and left me with the impression of
their being so gratuitous that the control I had then exercised upon myself seemed to me illusory and all I could think of
was putting an end to the interminable quarrel raging within me.* (Knut Hamsum ascribes this sort of revelation to which I
had been subjected as deriving from hunger, and he may not be wrong. (The fact is I did not eat every day during that
period of my life). Most certainly the manifestations that he describes in these terms are clearly the same:

"The following day I awoke at an early hour. It was still dark. My eyes had been open for a long time when I heard the
clock in the apartment above strike five. I wanted to go back to sleep, but I couldn't; I was wide awake and a thousand
thoughts were crowding through my mind.

"Suddenly a few good fragments came to mind, quite suitable to be used in a rough draft, or serialized; all of a sudden I
found, quite by chance, beautiful phrases, phrases such as I had never written. I repeated them to myself slowly, word
by word; they were excellent. And there were still more coming. I got up and picked up a pencil and some paper that
were on a table behind my bed. It was as though some vein had burst within me, one word followed another, found its
proper place, adapted itself to the situation, scene piled upon scene, the action unfolded, one retort after another welled
up in my mind, I was enjoying myself immensely. Thoughts came to me so rapidly and continued to flow so abundantly
that I lost a whole host of delicate details, because my pencil could not keep up with them, and yet I went as fast as I
could, my hand in constant motion, I did not lose a minute. The sentences continued to well up within me, I was pregnant
with my subject."


Apollinaire asserted that Chirico's first paintings were done under the influence of cenesthesic disorders (migraines,
colics, etc.).)



Completely occupied as I still was with Freud at that time, and familiar as I was with his methods of examination which I
had some slight occasion to use on some patients during the war, I resolved to obtain from myself what we were trying to
obtain from them, namely, a monologue spoken as rapidly as possible without any intervention on the part of the critical
faculties, a monologue consequently unencumbered by the slightest inhibition and which was, as closely as possible,
akin to spoken thought. It had seemed to me, and still does -- the way in which the phrase about the man cut in two had
come to me is an indication of it -- that the speed of thought is no greater than the speed of speech, and that thought
does not necessarily defy language, nor even the fast-moving pen. It was in this frame of mind that Philippe Soupault --
to whom I had confided these initial conclusions – and I decided to blacken some paper, with a praiseworthy disdain for
what might result from a literary point of view. The ease of execution did the rest. By the end of the first day we were
able to read to ourselves some fifty or so pages obtained in this manner, and begin to compare our results. All in all,
Soupault's pages and mine proved to be remarkably similar: the same overconstruction, shortcomings of a similar
nature, but also, on both our parts, the illusion of an extraordinary verve, a great deal of emotion, a considerable choice
of images of a quality such that we would not have been capable of preparing a single one in longhand, a very special
picturesque quality and, here and there, a strong comical effect. The only difference between our two texts seemed to
me to derive essentially from our respective tempers. Soupault's being less static than mine, and, if he does not mind my
offering this one slight criticism, from the fact that he had made the error of putting a few words by way of titles at the top
of certain pages, I suppose in a spirit of mystification. On the other hand, I must give credit where credit is due and say
that he constantly and vigorously opposed any effort to retouch or correct, however slightly, any passage of this kind
which seemed to me unfortunate. In this he was, to be sure, absolutely right.* (I believe more and more in the infallibility
of my thought with respect to myself, and this is too fair. Nonetheless, with this thought-writing, where one is at the mercy
of the first outside distraction, "ebullutions" can occur. It would be inexcusable for us to pretend otherwise. By definition,
thought is strong, and incapable of catching itself in error. The blame for these obvious weaknesses must be placed on
suggestions that come to it from without.) It is, in fact, difficult to appreciate fairly the various elements present: one may
even go so far as to say that it is impossible to appreciate them at a first reading. To you who write, these elements are,
on the surface, as strange to you as they are to anyone else, and naturally you are wary of them. Poetically speaking,
what strikes you about them above all is their extreme degree of immediate absurdity, the quality of this absurdity, upon
closer scrutiny, being to give way to everything admissible, everything legitimate in the world: the disclosure of a certain
number of properties and of facts no less objective, in the final analysis, than the others.

In homage to Guillaume Apollinaire, who had just died and who, on several occasions, seemed to us to have followed a
discipline of this kind, without however having sacrificed to it any mediocre literary means, Soupault and I baptized the
new mode of pure expression which we had at our disposal and which we wished to pass on to our friends, by the name
of SURREALISM. I believe that there is no point today in dwelling any further on this word and that the meaning we gave
it initially has generally prevailed over its Apollinarian sense. To be even fairer, we could probably have taken over the
word SUPERNATURALISM employed by Gérard de Nerval in his dedication to the Filles de feu.* (And also by Thomas
Carlyle in Sartor Resartus ([Book III] Chapter VIII, "Natural Supernaturalism"), 1833-34.) It appears, in fact, that Nerval
possessed to a tee the spirit with which we claim a kinship, Apollinaire having possessed, on the contrary, naught but
the letter, still imperfect, of Surrealism, having shown himself powerless to give a valid theoretical idea of it. Here are two
passages by Nerval which seem to me to be extremely significant in this respect:

I am going to explain to you, my dear Dumas, the phenomenon of which you have spoken a short while ago. There are,
as you know, certain storytellers who cannot invent without identifying with the characters their imagination has dreamt
up. You may recall how convincingly our old friend Nodier used to tell how it had been his misfortune during the
Revolution to be guillotined; one became so completely convinced of what he was saying that one began to wonder how
he had managed to have his head glued back on.

...And since you have been indiscreet enough to quote one of the sonnets composed in this SUPERNATURALISTIC
dream-state, as the Germans would call it, you will have to hear them all. You will find them at the end of the volume.
They are hardly any more obscure than Hegel's metaphysics or Swedenborg's MEMORABILIA, and would lose their
charm if they were explained, if such were possible; at least admit the worth of the expression....** (See also
L'Idéoréalisme by Saint-Pol-Roux.)


Those who might dispute our right to employ the term SURREALISM in the very special sense that we understand it are
being extremely dishonest, for there can be no doubt that this word had no currency before we came along. Therefore, I
am defining it once and for all:

SURREALISM, n. Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express -- verbally, by means of the
written word, or in any other manner -- the actual functioning of thought. Dictated by the thought, in the absence of any
control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.

ENCYCLOPEDIA. Philosophy. Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously
neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for
all all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life. The following
have performed acts of ABSOLUTE SURREALISM: Messrs. Aragon, Baron, Boiffard, Breton, Carrive, Crevel, Delteil,
Desnos, Eluard, Gérard, Limbour, Malkine, Morise, Naville, Noll, Péret, Picon, Soupault, Vitrac.

They seem to be, up to the present time, the only ones, and there would be no ambiguity about it were it not for the
case of Isidore Ducasse, about whom I lack information. And, of course, if one is to judge them only superficially by their
results, a good number of poets could pass for Surrealists, beginning with Dante and, in his finer moments,
Shakespeare. In the course of the various attempts I have made to reduce what is, by breach of trust, called genius, I
have found nothing which in the final analysis can be attributed to any other method than that.

Young's Nights are Surrealist from one end to the other; unfortunately it is a priest who is speaking, a bad priest no
doubt, but a priest nonetheless.

Swift is Surrealist in malice,

Sade is Surrealist in sadism.

Chateaubriand is Surrealist in exoticism.

Constant is Surrealist in politics.

Hugo is Surrealist when he isn't stupid.

Desbordes-Valmore is Surrealist in love.

Bertrand is Surrealist in the past.

Rabbe is Surrealist in death.

Poe is Surrealist in adventure.

Baudelaire is Surrealist in morality.

Rimbaud is Surrealist in the way he lived, and elsewhere.

Mallarmé is Surrealist when he is confiding.

Jarry is Surrealist in absinthe.

Nouveau is Surrealist in the kiss.

Saint-Pol-Roux is Surrealist in his use of symbols.

Fargue is Surrealist in the atmosphere.

Vaché is Surrealist in me.

Reverdy is Surrealist at home.

Saint-Jean-Perse is Surrealist at a distance.

Roussel is Surrealist as a storyteller.

Etc.

I would like to stress the point: they are not always Surrealists, in that I discern in each of them a certain number of
preconceived ideas to which -- very naively! -- they hold. They hold to them because they had not heard the Surrealist
voice, the one that continues to preach on the eve of death and above the storms, because they did not want to serve
simply to orchestrate the marvelous score. They were instruments too full of pride, and this is why they have not always
produced a harmonious sound.* (I could say the same of a number of philosophers and painters, including, among the
latter, Uccello, from painters of the past, and, in the modern era, Seurat, Gustave Moreau, Matisse (in "La Musique," for
example), Derain, Picasso, (by far the most pure), Braque, Duchamp, Picabia, Chirico (so admirable for so long), Klee,
Man Ray, Max Ernst, and, one so close to us, André Masson.)

But we, who have made no effort whatsoever to filter, who in our works have made ourselves into simple receptacles of
so many echoes, modest recording instruments who are not mesmerized by the drawings we are making, perhaps we
serve an even nobler cause. Thus do we render with integrity the "talent" which has been lent to us. You might as well
speak of the talent of this platinum ruler, this mirror, this door, and of the sky, if you like.

We do not have any talent; ask Philippe Soupault:

"Anatomical products of manufacture and low-income dwellings will destroy the tallest cities."

Ask Roger Vitrac:

"No sooner had I called forth the marble-admiral than he turned on his heel like a horse which rears at the sight of the
North star and showed me, in the plane of his two-pointed cocked hat, a region where I was to spend my life."

Ask Paul Eluard:

"This is an oft-told tale that I tell, a famous poem that I reread: I am leaning against a wall, with my verdant ears and my
lips burned to a crisp."

Ask Max Morise:

"The bear of the caves and his friend the bittern, the vol-au-vent and his valet the wind, the Lord Chancellor with his
Lady, the scarecrow for sparrows and his accomplice the sparrow, the test tube and his daughter the needle, this
carnivore and his brother the carnival, the sweeper and his monocle, the Mississippi and its little dog, the coral and its
jug of milk, the Miracle and its Good Lord, might just as well go and disappear from the surface of the sea."

Ask Joseph Delteil:

"Alas! I believe in the virtue of birds. And a feather is all it takes to make me die laughing."

Ask Louis Aragon:

"During a short break in the party, as the players were gathering around a bowl of flaming punch, I asked a tree if it still
had its red ribbon."

And ask me, who was unable to keep myself from writing the serpentine, distracting lines of this preface.


Ask Robert Desnos, he who, more than any of us, has perhaps got closest to the Surrealist truth, he who, in his still
unpublished works* (NOUVELLES HÉBRIDES, DÉSORDRE FORMEL, DEUIL POUR DEUIL.) and in the course of the
numerous experiments he has been a party to, has fully justified the hope I placed in Surrealism and leads me to believe
that a great deal more will still come of it. Desnos speaks Surrealist at will. His extraordinary agility in orally following his
thought is worth as much to us as any number of splendid speeches which are lost, Desnos having better things to do
than record them. He reads himself like an open book, and does nothing to retain the pages, which fly away in the windy
wake of his life.

ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö ö





SECRETS OF THE MAGICAL

SURREALIST ART

Written Surrealist composition

or

first and last draft

After you have settled yourself in a place as favorable as possible to the concentration of your mind upon itself, have
writing materials brought to you. Put yourself in as passive, or receptive, a state of mind as you can. Forget about your
genius, your talents, and the talents of everyone else. Keep reminding yourself that literature is one of the saddest
roads that leads to everything. Write quickly, without any preconceived subject, fast enough so that you will not
remember what you're writing and be tempted to reread what you have written. The first sentence will come
spontaneously, so compelling is the truth that with every passing second there is a sentence unknown to our
consciousness which is only crying out to be heard. It is somewhat of a problem to form an opinion about the next
sentence; it doubtless partakes both of our conscious activity and of the other, if one agrees that the fact of having
written the first entails a minimum of perception. This should be of no importance to you, however; to a large extent, this
is what is most interesting and intriguing about the Surrealist game. The fact still remains that punctuation no doubt
resists the absolute continuity of the flow with which we are concerned, although it may seem as necessary as the
arrangement of knots in a vibrating cord. Go on as long as you like. Put your trust in the inexhaustible nature of the
murmur. If silence threatens to settle in if you should ever happen to make a mistake -- a mistake, perhaps due to
carelessness -- break off without hesitation with an overly clear line. Following a word the origin of which seems
suspicious to you, place any letter whatsoever, the letter "l" for example, always the letter "l," and bring the arbitrary
back by making this letter the first of the following word.

How not to be bored any longer when with others

This is very difficult. Don't be at home for anyone, and occasionally, when no one has forced his way in, interrupting you
in the midst of your Surrealist activity, and you, crossing your arms, say: "It doesn't matter, there are doubtless better
things to do or not do. Interest in life is indefensible Simplicity, what is going on inside me, is still tiresome to me!" or an
other revolting banality.

To make speeches

Just prior to the elections, in the first country which deems it worthwhile to proceed in this kind of public expression of
opinion, have yourself put on the ballot. Each of us has within himself the potential of an orator: multicolored loin cloths,
glass trinkets of words. Through Surrealism he will take despair unawares in its poverty. One night, on a stage, he will,
by himself, carve up the eternal heaven, that Peau de l'ours. He will promise so much that any promises he keeps will be
a source of wonder and dismay. In answer to the claims of an entire people he will give a partial and ludicrous vote. He
will make the bitterest enemies partake of a secret desire which will blow up the countries. And in this he will succeed
simply by allowing himself to be moved by the immense word which dissolves into pity and revolves in hate. Incapable of
failure, he will play on the velvet of all failures. He will be truly elected, and women will love him with an all-consuming
passion.

To write false novels

Whoever you may be, if the spirit moves you burn a few laurel leaves and, without wishing to tend this meager fire, you
will begin to write a novel. Surrealism will allow you to: all you have to do is set the needle marked "fair" at "action," and
the rest will follow naturally. Here are some characters rather different in appearance; their names in your handwriting
are a question of capital letters, and they will conduct themselves with the same ease with respect to active verbs as
does the impersonal pronoun "it" with respect to words such as "is raining," "is," "must," etc. They will command them, so
to speak, and wherever observation, reflection, and the faculty of generalization prove to be of no help to you, you may
rest assured that they will credit you with a thousand intentions you never had. Thus endowed with a tiny number of
physical and moral characteristics, these beings who in truth owe you so little will thereafter deviate not one iota from a
certain line of conduct about which you need not concern yourself any further. Out of this will result a plot more or less
clever in appearance, justifying point by point this moving or comforting denouement about which you couldn't care less.
Your false novel will simulate to a marvelous degree a real novel; you will be rich, and everyone will agree that "you've
really got a lot of guts," since it's also in this region that this something is located.

Of course, by an analogous method, and provided you ignore what you are reviewing, you can successfully devote
yourself to false literary criticism.

How to catch the eye of a woman

you pass in the street

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



Against death

Surrealism will usher you into death, which is a secret society. It will glove your hand, burying therein the profound M
with which the word Memory begins. Do not forget to make proper arrangements for your last will and testament:
speaking personally, I ask that I be taken to the cemetery in a moving van. May my friends destroy every last copy of the
printing of the Speech concerning the Modicum of Reality.

“ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “

Language has been given to man so that he may make Surrealist use of it. To the extent that he is required to make
himself understood, he manages more or less to express himself, and by so doing to fulfill certain functions culled from
among the most vulgar. Speaking, reading a letter, present no real problem for him, provided that, in so doing, he does
not set himself a goal above the mean, that is, provided he confines himself to carrying on a conversation (for the
pleasure of conversing) with someone. He is not worried about the words that are going to come, nor about the
sentence which will follow after the sentence he is just completing. To a very simple question, he will be capable of
making a lightning-like reply. In the absence of minor tics acquired through contact with others, he can without any ado
offer an opinion on a limited number of subjects; for that he does not need to "count up to ten" before speaking or to
formulate anything whatever ahead of time. Who has been able to convince him that this faculty of the first draft will only
do him a disservice when he makes up his mind to establish more delicate relationships? There is no subject about
which he should refuse to talk, to write about prolifically. All that results from listening to oneself, from reading what one
has written, is the suspension of the occult, that admirable help. I am in no hurry to understand myself (basta! I shall
always understand myself). If such and such a sentence of mine turns out to be somewhat disappointing, at least
momentarily, I place my trust in the following sentence to redeem its sins; I carefully refrain from starting it over again or
polishing it. The only thing that might prove fatal to me would be the slightest loss of impetus. Words, groups of words
which follow one another, manifest among themselves the greatest solidarity. It is not up to me to favor one group over
the other. It is up to a miraculous equivalent to intervene -- and intervene it does.

Not only does this unrestricted language, which I am trying to render forever valid, which seems to me to adapt itself to
all of life's circumstances, not only does this language not deprive me of any of my means, on the contrary it lends me
an extraordinary lucidity, and it does so in an area where I least expected it. I shall even go so far as to maintain that it
instructs me and, indeed, I have had occasion to use surreally words whose meaning I have forgotten. I was
subsequently able to verify that the way in which I had used them corresponded perfectly with their definition. This would
leave one to believe that we do not "learn," that all we ever do is "relearn." There are felicitous turns of speech that I
have thus familiarized myself with. And I am not talking about the poetic consciousness of objects which I have been able
to acquire only after a spiritual contact with them repeated a thousand times over.

The forms of Surrealist language adapt themselves best to dialogue. Here, two thoughts confront each other; while one
is being delivered, the other is busy with it; but how is it busy with it? To assume that it incorporates it within itself would
be tantamount to admitting that there is a time during which it is possible for it to live completely off that other thought,
which is highly unlikely. And, in fact, the attention it pays is completely exterior; it has only time enough to approve or
reject -- generally reject -- with all the consideration of which man is capable. This mode of language, moreover, does
not allow the heart of the matter to be plumbed. My attention, prey to an entreaty which it cannot in all decency reject,
treats the opposing thought as an enemy; in ordinary conversation, it "takes it up" almost always on the words, the
figures of speech, it employs; it puts me in a position to turn it to good advantage in my reply by distorting them. This is
true to such a degree that in certain pathological states of mind, where the sensorial disorders occupy the patient's
complete attention, he limits himself, while continuing to answer the questions, to seizing the last word spoken in his
presence or the last portion of the Surrealist sentence some trace of which he finds in his mind.

Q. "How old are you?" A. "You." (Echolalia.)

Q. "What is your name?" A. "Forty-five houses." (Ganser syndrome, or beside-the-point replies.)

There is no conversation in which some trace of this disorder does not occur. The effort to be social which dictates it
and the considerable practice we have at it are the only things which enable us to conceal it temporarily. It is also the
great weakness of the book that it is in constant conflict with its best, by which I mean the most demanding, readers. In
the very short dialogue that I concocted above between the doctor and the madman, it was in fact the madman who got
the better of the exchange. Because, through his replies, he obtrudes upon the attention of the doctor examining him --
and because he is not the person asking the questions. Does this mean that his thought at this point is stronger?
Perhaps. He is free not to care any longer about his age or name.

Poetic Surrealism, which is the subject of this study, has focused its efforts up to this point on reestablishing dialogue in
its absolute truth, by freeing both interlocutors from any obligations and politeness. Each of them simply pursues his
soliloquy without trying to derive any special dialectical pleasure from it and without trying to impose anything
whatsoever upon his neighbor. The remarks exchanged are not, as is generally the case, meant to develop some
thesis, however unimportant it may be; they are as disaffected as possible. As for the reply that they elicit, it is, in
principle, totally indifferent to the personal pride of the person speaking. The words, the images are only so many
springboards for the mind of the listener. In Les Champs magnétiques, the first purely Surrealist work, this is the way in
which the pages grouped together under the title Barrières must be conceived of -- pages wherein Soupault and I show
ourselves to be impartial interlocutors.





Surrealism does not allow those who devote themselves to it to forsake it whenever they like. There is every reason to
believe that it acts on the mind very much as drugs do; like drugs, it creates a certain state of need and can push man
to frightful revolts. It also is, if you like, an artificial paradise, and the taste one has for it derives from Baudelaire's
criticism for the same reason as the others. Thus the analysis of the mysterious effects and special pleasures it can
produce -- in many respects Surrealism occurs as a new vice which does not necessarily seem to be restricted to the
happy few; like hashish, it has the ability to satisfy all manner of tastes -- such an analysis has to be included in the
present study.

1. It is true of Surrealist images as it is of opium images that man does not evoke them; rather they "come to him
spontaneously, despotically. He cannot chase them away; for the will is powerless now and no longer controls the
faculties."* (Baudelaire.) It remains to be seen whether images have ever been "evoked." If one accepts, as I do,
Reverdy's definition it does not seem possible to bring together, voluntarily, what he calls "two distant realities." The
juxtaposition is made or not made, and that is the long and the short of it. Personally, I absolutely refuse to believe that,
in Reverdy's work, images such as

In the brook, there is a song that flows

or:

Day unfolded like a white tablecloth

or:

The world goes back into a sack

reveal the slightest degree of premeditation. In my opinion, it is erroneous to claim that "the mind has grasped the
relationship" of two realities in the presence of each other. First of all, it has seized nothing consciously. It is, as it were,
from the fortuitous juxtaposition of the two terms that a particular light has sprung, the light of the image, to which we are
infinitely sensitive. The value of the image depends upon the beauty of the spark obtained; it is, consequently, a
function of the difference of potential between the two conductors. When the difference exists only slightly, as in a
comparison,* (Compare the image in the work of Jules Renard.) the spark is lacking. Now, it is not within man's power, so
far as I can tell, to effect the juxtaposition of two realities so far apart. The principle of the association of ideas, such as
we conceive of it, militates against it. Or else we would have to revert to an elliptical art, which Reverdy deplores as
much as I. We are therefore obliged to admit that the two terms of the image are not deduced one from the other by the
mind for the specific purpose of producing the spark, that they are the simultaneous products of the activity I call
Surrealist, reason's role being limited to taking note of, and appreciating, the luminous phenomenon.

And just as the length of the spark increases to the extent that it occurs in rarefied gases, the Surrealist atmosphere
created by automatic writing, which I have wanted to put within the reach of everyone, is especially conducive to the
production of the most beautiful images. One can even go so far as to say that in this dizzying race the images appear
like the only guideposts of the mind. By slow degrees the mind becomes convinced of the supreme reality of these
images. At first limiting itself to submitting to them, it soon realizes that they flatter its reason, and increase its knowledge
accordingly. The mind becomes aware of the limitless expanses wherein its desires are made manifest, where the pros
and cons are constantly consumed, where its obscurity does not betray it. It goes forward, borne by these images which
enrapture it, which scarcely leave it any time to blow upon the fire in its fingers. This is the most beautiful night of all, the
lightning-filled night: day, compared to it, is night.

The countless kinds of Surrealist images would require a classification which I do not intend to make today. To group
them according to their particular affinities would lead me far afield; what I basically want to mention is their common
virtue. For me, their greatest virtue, I must confess, is the one that is arbitrary to the highest degree, the one that takes
the longest time to translate into practical language, either because it contains an immense amount of seeming
contradiction or because one of its terms is strangely concealed; or because, presenting itself as something
sensational, it seems to end weakly (because it suddenly closes the angle of its compass), or because it derives from
itself a ridiculous formal justification, or because it is of a hallucinatory kind, or because it very naturally gives to the
abstract the mask of the concrete, or the opposite, or because it implies the negation of some elementary physical
property, or because it provokes laughter. Here, in order, are a few examples of it:

The ruby of champagne. (LAUTRÉAMONT)

Beautiful as the law of arrested development of the breast in adults, whose propensity to growth is not in proportion to
the quantity of molecules that their organism assimilates. (LAUTRÉAMONT)

A church stood dazzling as a bell. (PHILIPPE SOUPAULT)

In Rrose Sélavy's sleep there is a dwarf issued from a well who comes to eat her bread at night. (ROBERT DESNOS)

On the bridge the dew with the head of a tabby cat lulls itself to sleep. (ANDRÉ BRETON)

A little to the left, in my firmament foretold, I see -- but it's doubtless but a mist of blood and murder -- the gleaming glass
of liberty's disturbances. (LOUIS ARAGON)

In the forest aflame

The lions were fresh. (ROBERT VITRAC)

The color of a woman's stockings is not necessarily in the likeness of her eyes, which led a philosopher who it is
pointless to mention, to say: "Cephalopods have more reasons to hate progress than do quadrupeds."

(MAX MORISE)

1st. Whether we like it or not, there is enough there to satisfy several demands of the mind. All these images seem to
attest to the fact that the mind is ripe for something more than the benign joys it allows itself in general. This is the only
way it has of turning to its own advantage the ideal quantity of events with which it is entrusted.* (Let us no forget that,
according to Novalis' formula, "there are series of events which run parallel to real events. Men and circumstances
generally modify the ideal train of circumstances, so that is seems imperfect; and their consequences are also equally
imperfect. Thus it was with the Reformation; instead of Protestantism, we got Lutheranism.") These images show it the
extent of its ordinary dissipation and the drawbacks that it offers for it. In the final analysis, it's not such a bad thing for
these images to upset the mind, for to upset the mind is to put it in the wrong. The sentences I quote make ample
provision for this. But the mind which relishes them draws therefrom the conviction that it is on the right track; on its own,
the mind is incapable of finding itself guilty of cavil; it has nothing to fear, since, moreover, it attempts to embrace
everything.

2nd. The mind which plunges into Surrealism relives with glowing excitement the best part of its childhood. For such a
mind, it is similar to the certainty with which a person who is drowning reviews once more, in the space of less than a
second, all the insurmountable moments of his life. Some may say to me that the parallel is not very encouraging. But I
have no intention of encouraging those who tell me that. From childhood memories, and from a few others, there
emanates a sentiment of being unintegrated, and then later of having gone astray, which I hold to be the most fertile
that exists. It is perhaps childhood that comes closest to one's "real life"; childhood beyond which man has at his
disposal, aside from his laissez-passer, only a few complimentary tickets; childhood where everything nevertheless
conspires to bring about the effective, risk-free possession of oneself. Thanks to Surrealism, it seems that opportunity
knocks a second time. It is as though we were still running toward our salvation, or our perdition. In the shadow we again
see a precious terror. Thank God, it's still only Purgatory. With a shudder, we cross what the occultists call dangerous
territory. In my wake I raise up monsters that are lying in wait; they are not yet too ill-disposed toward me, and I am not
lost, since I fear them. Here are "the elephants with the heads of women and the flying lions" which used to make
Soupault and me tremble in our boots to meet, here is the "soluble fish" which still frightens me slightly. POISSON
SOLUBLE, am I not the soluble fish, I was born under the sign of Pisces, and man is soluble in his thought! The flora
and fauna of Surrealism are inadmissible.

3rd. I do not believe in the establishment of a conventional Surrealist pattern any time in the near future. The
characteristics common to all the texts of this kind, including those I have just cited and many others which alone could
offer us a logical analysis and a careful grammatical analysis, do not preclude a certain evolution of Surrealist prose in
time. Coming on the heels of a large number of essays I have written in this vein over the past five years, most of which I
am indulgent enough to think are extremely disordered, the short anecdotes which comprise the balance of this volume
offer me a glaring proof of what I am saying. I do not judge them to be any more worthless, because of that, in portraying
for the reader the benefits which the Surrealist contribution is liable to make to his consciousness.

Surrealist methods would, moreover, demand to be

heard. Everything is valid when it comes to obtaining the desired suddenness from certain associations. The pieces of
paper that Picasso and Braque insert into their work have the same value as the introduction of a platitude into a literary
analysis of the most rigorous sort. It is even permissible to entitle POEM what we get from the most random assemblage
possible (observe, if you will, the syntax) of headlines and scraps of headlines cut out of the newspapers:



POEM



A burst of laughter

of sapphire in the island of Ceylon

The most beautiful straws

HAVE A FADED COLOR

UNDER THE LOCKS

on an isolated farm

FROM DAY TO DAY

the pleasant

grows worse

coffee

preaches for its saint

THE DAILY ARTISAN OF YOUR BEAUTY

MADAM,

a pair

of silk stockings

is not

A leap into space

A STAG

Love above all

Everything could be worked out so well

PARIS IS A BIG VILLAGE

Watch out for

the fire that covers

THE PRAYER

of fair weather

Know that

The ultraviolet rays

have finished their task

short and sweet

THE FIRST WHITE PAPER

OF CHANCE

Red will be

The wandering singer

WHERE IS HE?

in memory

in his house

AT THE SUITORS’ BALL

I do

as I dance

What people did, what they’re going to do





And we could offer many many more examples. The theater, philosophy, science, criticism would all succeed in finding
their bearings there. I hasten to add that future Surrealist techniques do not interest me.



Far more serious, in my opinion* (Whatever reservations I may be allowed to make concerning responsibility in general
and the medico-legal considerations which determine an individual's degree of responsibility -- complete responsibility,
irresponsibility, limited responsibility (sic) -- however difficult it may be for me to accept the principle of any kind of
responsibility, I would like to know how the first punishable offenses, the Surrealist character of which will be clearly
apparent, will be judged. Will the accused be acquitted, or will he merely be given the benefit of the doubt because of
extenuating circumstances? It's a shame that the violation of the laws governing the Press is today scarcely repressed,
for if it were not we would soon see a trial of this sort: the accused has published a book which is an outrage to public
decency. Several of his "most respected and honorable" fellow citizens have lodged a complaint against him, and he is
also charged with slander and libel. There are also all sorts of other charges against him, such as insulting and
defaming the army, inciting to murder, rape, etc. The accused, moreover, wastes no time in agreeing with the accusers
in "stigmatizing" most of the ideas expressed. His only defense is claiming that he does not consider himself to be the
author of his book, said book being no more and no less than a Surrealist concoction which precludes any question of
merit or lack of merit on the part of the person who signs it; further, that all he has done is copy a document without
offering any opinion thereon, and that he is at least as foreign to the accused text as is the presiding judge himself.

What is true for the publication of a book will also hold true for a whole host of other acts as soon as Surrealist methods
begin to enjoy widespread favor. When that happens, a new morality must be substituted for the prevailing morality, the
source of all our trials and tribulations.) -- I have intimated it often enough -- are the applications of Surrealism to action.
To be sure, I do not believe in the prophetic nature of the Surrealist word. "It is the oracle, the things I say."* (Rimbaud.)
Yes, as much as I like, but what of the oracle itself?** (Still, STILL.... We must absolutely get to the bottom of this. Today,
June 8, 1924, about one o'clock, the voice whispered to me: "Béthune, Béthune." What did it mean? I have never been
to Béthune, and have only the vaguest notion as to where it is located on the map of France. Béthune evokes nothing
for me, not even a scene from The Three Musketeers. I should have left for Béthune, where perhaps there was
something awaiting me; that would have been to simple, really. Someone told me they had read in a book by Chesterton
about a detective who, in order to find someone he is looking for in a certain city, simply scoured from roof to cellar the
houses which, from the outside, seemed somehow abnormal to him, were it only in some slight detail. This system is as
good as any other.

Similarly, in 1919, Soupault went into any number of impossible buildings to ask the concierge whether Philippe Soupault
did in fact live there. He would not have been surprised, I suspect, by an affirmative reply. He would have gone and
knocked on his door.) Men's piety does not fool me. The Surrealist voice that shook Cumae, Dodona, and Delphi is
nothing more than the voice which dictates my less irascible speeches to me. My time must not be its time, why should
this voice help me resolve the childish problem of my destiny? I pretend, unfortunately, to act in a world where, in order
to take into account its suggestions, I would be obliged to resort to two kinds of interpreters, one to translate its
judgements for me, the other, impossible to find, to transmit to my fellow men whatever sense I could make out of them.
This world, in which I endure what I endure (don’t go see), this modern world, I mean, what the devil do you want me to
do with it? Perhaps the Surrealist voice will be stilled, I have given up trying to keep track of those who have
disappeared. I shall no longer enter into, however briefly, the marvelous detailed description of my years and my days. I
shall be like Nijinski who was taken last year to the Russian ballet and did not realize what spectacle it was he was
seeing. I shall be alone, very alone within myself, indifferent to all the world’s ballets. What I have done, what I have left
undone, I give it to you.





And ever since I have had a great desire to show forbearance to scientific musing, however unbecoming, in the final
analysis, from every point of view. Radios? Fine. Syphilis? If you like. Photography? I don’t see any reason why not. The
cinema? Three cheers for darkened rooms. War? Gave us a good laugh. The telephone? Hello. Youth? Charming white
hair. Try to make me say thank you: "Thank you." Thank you. If the common man has a high opinion of things which
properly speaking belong to the realm of the laboratory, it is because such research has resulted in the manufacture of
a machine or the discovery of some serum which the man in the street views as affecting him directly. He is quite sure
that they have been trying to improve his lot. I am not quite sure to what extent scholars are motivated by humanitarian
aims, but it does not seem to me that this factor constitutes a very marked degree of goodness. I am, of course,
referring to true scholars and not to the vulgarizers and popularizers of all sorts who take out patents. In this realm as in
any other, I believe in the pure Surrealist joy of the man who, forewarned that all others before him have failed, refuses
to admit defeat, sets off from whatever point he chooses, along any other path save a reasonable one, and arrives
wherever he can. Such and such an image, by which he deems it opportune to indicate his progress and which may
result, perhaps, in his receiving public acclaim, is to me, I must confess, a matter of complete indifference. Nor is the
material with which he must perforce encumber himself; his glass tubes or my metallic feathers… As for his method, I am
willing to give it as much credit as I do mine. I have seen the inventor of the cutaneous plantar reflex at work; he
manipulated his subjects without respite, it was much more than an "examination" he was employing; it was obvious that
he was following no set plan. Here and there he formulated a remark, distantly, without nonetheless setting down his
needle, while his hammer was never still. He left to others the futile task of curing patients. He was wholly consumed by
and devoted to that sacred fever.



Surrealism, such as I conceive of it, asserts our complete nonconformism clearly enough so that there can be no
question of translating it, at the trial of the real world, as evidence for the defense. It could, on the contrary, only serve
to justify the complete state of distraction which we hope to achieve here below. Kant’s absentmindedness regarding
women, Pasteur’s absentmindedness about "grapes," Curie’s absentmindedness with respect to vehicles, are in this
regard profoundly symptomatic. This world is only very relatively in tune with thought, and incidents of this kind are only
the most obvious episodes of a war in which I am proud to be participating. "Ce monde n’est que très relativement à la
mesure de la pensée et les incidents de ce genre ne sont que les épisodes jusqu’ici les plus marquants d’une guerre d’
indépendence à laquelle je me fais gloire de participer." Surrealism is the "invisible ray" which will one day enable us to
win out over our opponents. "You are no longer trembling, carcass." This summer the roses are blue; the wood is of
glass. The earth, draped in its verdant cloak, makes as little impression upon me as a ghost. It is living and ceasing to
live which are imaginary solutions. Existence is elsewhere.
MANIFESTO

OF

SURREALISM



BY

ANDREÉ
BRETON

(1924)
-Thee Art Of-